**GATE Biomedical Engineering Syllabus:**

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial
derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector
identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s
theorems.

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Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear),
higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation
of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value
problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable separable
method.

Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem
and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of
integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability,
mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and
continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions. Tests of
Significance, statistical power analysis, and sample size estimation.
Regression and correlation analysis.

Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of nonlinear
algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical
integration.

Section 2: Electrical Circuits:

Voltage
and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i
relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient
analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation.

Kirchoff’s
laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power
transfer and reciprocity theorems.

Peak-,
average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive
powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel
resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and
Celements.

Section 3: Signals and Systems

Continuous and Discrete Signal
and Systems: Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Sampling theorem;
Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function, frequency response of
first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of
systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response,
frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT; basics of IIR and FIR
filters.

Section 4: Analog and Digital Electronics

Characteristics
and applications of diode, Zenerdiode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of
transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational
amplifiers; applications of opamps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor,
integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier,buffer.

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean
functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt
trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers,
timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer. Characteristics of
ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling
time); basics of number systems, microprocessor and microcontroller:
applications, memory and input- output interfacing; elements of data
acquisition systems.

Section 5: Measurements and Control Systems

SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement,
expression of uncertainty - accuracy and precision index, propagation of
errors. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc potentiometer; bridges
for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Basics of control engineering –
modeling system: transfer function and state-space model, stability
analysis:time domain and frequency domain analysis.

Section 6: Sensors and Bioinstrumentation

Types
of Instruments: Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall
Effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; Optical sources and
detectors: LED, Photo-diode, p-i-nandavalanchephotodiode (APD), light dependent
resistor and their characteristics; basics of magnetic sensing; Interferometer:
applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing. Basics of LASERs.

Origin,
nature, and types of Biosignals, Principles of sensing physiological
parameters, types of transducers and their characteristics, Electrodes for
bioelectric signals, Bioelectric signals and their characteristics.
Biopotential Amplifiers, Noiseandarte facts and their management, Electrical Isolation
(optical and electrical) and Safety of Biomedical Instruments. Generation,
Acquisition, and signal conditioning and analysis of biosignals: ECG, EMG, EEG,
EOG, Blood ERG, PCG, GSR. Principles of measuring blood pressure, Core
temperature, volume & flow in arteries, veins and tissues – Lung volumes,
respiration and cardiacrate.

Section 7: Human Anatomy and Physiology

Basic
elements of human body-muscloskeletal system, respiratory system, circulatory
system, excretory system, endocrine system, nervous system, digestive, nervous,
immune, integumentary, and reproductive systems, Basics of cell and
molecularbiology.

Section 8: Biomechanics

Engineering Mechanics: Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses
and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane
motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations,
collisions.

Hard Tissues: Definition of Stress and Strain; Deformation Mechanics. Bone
structure & composition mechanical properties of bone, cortical and cancellous bones,
viscoelastic properties, Maxwell & Voight models – anisotropy, Fatigue
Analysis,

Soft Tissues: Structure, functions, material properties and modeling of Soft
Tissues: Cartilage, Tendon, Ligament, Muscle - Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

Human Joints and Movements: Skeletal joints, forces and stresses in human
joints, types of joint, biomechanical analysis joints, parameterization and analysis in
Gait,

Biofluid mechanics: Flow properties of blood, Dynamics of fluid
flow in the intact human cardiovascular system - modeling and experimental approaches,
Pulse wave velocities in arteries, Measurement/Estimation of In-vivo elasticity
of blood vessels,

Section 9: Medical Imaging Systems

Basic
physics and Instrumentation of medical images in X-Ray, Ultrasound, CT, MRI,
PET, FMRI, SPECT, and their characteristics.

Section 10: Biomaterials

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